Category Archives: Commercial Roofing

The (Essential) Commercial Flat Roof Ventilation Guide for 2022

Flat Roof Ventilation (Blog Cover)

Flat Roof Ventilation

Flat roof ventilation is essential because it helps maintain the health of your building, removes moisture and unsettling heat, and extends the roof’s lifespan. In addition, ventilation also increases HVAC unit efficiency and functionality.

Vents are readily discussed for residential roofs, but commercial flat roof ventilation information is more scarce. TPO and EPDM roofs can be hot or cold depending on where the insulation is installed

Hot roofs have insulation beneath the roof deck and over the material. In contrast, cold roofs have insulation beneath the roof deck and the roofing material.

Flat Roof Ventilation Benefits

We’ve noted some ways that ventilation helps maintain a high-performance flat roof for commercial building owners. Below, Roofer’s Guild outlines specific ways that ventilation benefits flat roofs in 2022.


Ventilation increases your flat roof’s lifespan and longevity by preventing condensation. Without ventilation, condensation can cause severe moisture damage and degrade the roofing material. As a result, proper ventilation reduces repair frequency and increases lifespan.

Energy Efficiency

Adequately ventilated flat roofs reduce heating and cooling costs for your commercial building. Summer can be incredibly stressful on energy costs, and a lack of proper ventilation will skyrocket your energy use. Additionally, keeping your building’s interior cooler puts less stress on your HVAC units while maintaining a comfortable temperature.

Interior Temperature Regulation

Your building’s interior temperature can impact the health and well-being of its occupants, along with goods or equipment stored inside. In addition, hot climates are prone to excessive heat that can degrade air quality. 

With flat roof ventilation, you can reduce temperature extremes inside your building and ensure a healthy temperature level regardless of outdoor fluctuations.

Cold Flat Roof Ventilation

Most cold roofs already have ventilation, allowing heat to escape underneath the shingles. As a result, the rest of the roof remains the same temperature as outside while the building stays protected. 

Since cold roofs are colder than your building’s interior during winter, condensation is less likely to form. 

Commercial Flat Roof Ventilation Tips

Commercial flat roofs need ventilation to prevent condensation. Even a thin layer of condensation can create significant problems for your building. It may rot your decking and materials and drip down to lower levels. Proper vent installation ensures roofs remain at the same temperature as the outside air.

Below are some FAQs regarding commercial flat roof ventilation:

How To Add Ventilation to a Flat Roof?

You need to circulate air in either the attic or the plenum to reach equal amounts of air exhaust and air intake. This enables the cavity to breathe, reducing problematic moisture and enhancing all aspects of the roof’s performance. For a visual example, see below:

How Much Ventilation Does a Flat Roof Need?

The absolute minimum required ventilation for a flat roof is 1 sqft per every 150 sqft of surface area. So, for example, a 200 sqft flat roof needs a minimum of 20 sqft of ventilation. But, of course, this is the bare minimum, and inverted gable fans are often a superior option.

A flat roof needs ventilation of a 25mm continuous gap running the entire length of both opposing eaves. Avoid cold bridging by extending the external walls to the insulation’s underside.

What is a Flat Roof Ventilation Strip?

A ventilation strip is installed into the soffit directly behind the gutter, allowing air to flow easily through the roof cavity and eliminate condensation and hot air.

What Type of Roof Ventilation Does a Flat Roof Have?

A flat roof can have the following types of roof vents:

  • Aura Vent: A long-lasting natural vent with zero moving parts is known for dynamically removing heat and moisture.
  • Boot Vent: A primary vent consisting of piping throughout the roof and quite popular because of its simplicity.
  • Box Vent: The aptly named box vent resembles its namesake and fits well with flat roofs because of the lack of pitch.
  • Pop Vent: A mechanical vent using an electric fan produces airflow with fresh external air.

Other kinds of vents used on flat roofs include breather vents, mushroom vents, and soffit vents.

Final Thoughts

A ventilated flat roof allows hot air to escape through the ridge and soffit vents. Hot air is trapped beneath the shingles and bleeds through the building’s interior without adequate ventilation. Entirely neglecting ventilation may cause melted rubber seals, severely damaging the roof.

Every commercial building owner should ventilate their flat roof to maintain indoor air quality, extend the roof’s lifespan, and avoid costly repairs. In addition, ventilation helps the roof maintain peak performance throughout its lifespan while reducing stress on your AC unit.

The Best Low Slope Roofing Options (Updated for 2022)

Low Slope Roofing Options (Blog Cover)

You must be very careful when selecting a low-slope roofing system. By nature, these roofs are less capable of draining water off a building. However, some excellent options still exist for your low-slope roof. 

Many people don’t realize that low-slope roofs have very low ground-level visibility. So while many property owners staring down a new low slope roofing project may be concerned about how the roof looks, this isn’t a valid concern. 

With steep slope roofs, you see more surface area from ground level. That is not the case with low-slope roofs, so you may want to be a bit less picky regarding the looks of your roof. 

That doesn’t mean you should choose a roofing material capriciously. On the contrary, there are a lot of things that you have to consider. The following post details the best low-slope roof options and their pros and cons.

Modified Bitumen Roof

Low Sloped Roof Options

  • Modified Bitumen
  • Standing Seam Metal
  • Single-Ply
  • Rolled

The Basics of Low-Slope Roofing

Before we get into the viable materials and systems for low slope roofs, it could be beneficial to go over the basics of these types of roofs. So what can be considered or classified as a low slope roof? A low-slope roof will have a slope of less than 3 in 12. In addition, a low-slope roof must not rise more than three vertical inches for every horizontal foot.

As you can imagine, this means the roof will have almost no steepness at all. Low-slope systems are often confused with flat roofing systems, but there is a difference. Though flat roofs also have virtually no steepness, they have a slight pitch of no more than half an inch per foot. 

Both flat and low-slope roofs are common on modern commercial buildings, especially in areas with arid climates that lack annual rain. When water drainage is not a concern, a low-slope roof poses a viable and affordable option compared to a pitched roof.

Best Low Slope Roofing Options

So what if your roof is a good candidate for a low slope roofing system? What are the best low-slope roofing options? Let’s take a look:

Modified Bitumen Roofs

One of the reasons modified bitumen is one of the best low slope roofing options is the cost. On average, you will spend between $2.50 and $4.00 per square foot for modified bitumen. Modified bitumen is also very durable, partly because of how it is installed. Much like built-up roofing, modified bitumen roofing systems are installed in layers. 

The layers are made up of roofing sheets composed of asphalt composites. The additional materials used to make the sheets can be rubber or plastic. This makes them very durable, and the asphalt coating means it is very resistant to UV damage. In addition, modified bitumen can be included in the composition of a built-up roofing system. 

Modified bitumen is also a terrific low-slope roofing option if you live in an area with a hot climate. This is because the asphalt material doesn’t buckle in extreme heat as other low-slope roofing materials can.

Built-Up Roofing

Speaking of built-up roofing, this is another good low-slope roofing option. As the name implies, a built-up low slope roof option will consist of alternating layers of felt, bitumen, and other reinforcing materials. The system’s final (top) layer will be composed of some aggregate such as stone or pebbles. 

This provides better impact protection and, once again, makes it very durable against extreme UV exposure. Built-up roofing systems are some of the oldest known to the modern world. Some of the oldest evidence of built-up roofing goes back to the mid-1800s.

The concept behind this type of roofing system is straightforward. Still, it provides excellent leak protection, and the multiple layers insulate buildings well.

Standing Seam Metal Roofing

Standing seam metal roofing may be the best of the low-slope roofing options. Why? For one thing, it offers outstanding weather protection. Standing seam roofs are made of long metal panels connected at a raised seam. 

The seams are fully concealed, though, and raised above the panels. There are no exposed screws or fasteners, so they offer outstanding leak and weather protection. Another reason standing seam metal is an excellent choice for low slope roofs is longevity. 

Standing seam metal roofs can last 50 years, making them among the longest-lasting low slope roofing options.

Single-Ply Roofing

As the name implies, single-ply roofing consists of a single layer of roof coating made of thermoplastic polyolefin, polyvinyl chloride (more commonly known as PVC), or ethylene propylene diene monomer (or EPMD for short). 

These roofing systems are rolled out onto the existing substrate, and the seams are welded. This is a prevalent low-slope roofing system because it provides good leak protection and isn’t very expensive.

Rolled Roofing

If you are on a budget or plan to have significant work done to your roof in the next few years, you may want to consider rolled roofing. Rolled roofing is not as durable or long-lasting as other options. However, it is very affordable due in part to the ease of installation. 

Rolled roofing is composed mainly of asphalt and an aggregate top layer. The rolls are applied in a single layer, and the material is very similar to simple asphalt shingles. One of the advantages of this kind of roofing system is that the material comes in a wide array of colors, styles, and textures. 

It is also good if you need a temporary low-slope roofing solution. 

Other Considerations for Low-Slope Roofs

While the above low-slope roofing options are among the most viable, you still have to consider other important things. For instance, the climate should play a massive role in your decision. 

You must also carefully calculate how much you can comfortably afford for the project, as many of these materials vary widely in price. Finally, as a roofing contractor, you must walk your customers through all their options.

9 Outstanding Benefits of A Butyl Elastomeric Roof Coating

Butyl Elastomeric Roof Coating (Blog Cover)

Butyl elastomeric roof coating is one of the most versatile options for commercial roofing systems. That’s because you can apply it to almost any kind of substrate. It’s also incredibly flexible because of the rubber content in the composition. That’s why you see these types of roof coatings on many commercial and flat roofs across the United States. 

But what are the specific advantages of butyl elastomeric roof coating? Are there any kinds of roofing systems that aren’t good candidates for it? As a property owner and roofing contractor, these are the crucial questions you must ask yourself. And in the following post, Roofer’s Guild will help you answer them. 

Butyl Elastomeric Roof Coating Basics

Before we go any further, you should know that butyl elastomeric roofing is sometimes referred to as simply butyl rubber roofing. Again, this is because of the elastomeric rubber that makes up the composition of this type of roof coating. 

The coating is applied as a liquid. As it cures, it hardens to form a single, continuous membrane that acts as a complete coating for the roofing system. 

But maybe you have heard of butyl rubber in other products and wondering if it is the same material. The answer is yes. Butyl rubber is a very versatile material. It is used to make many products, including lubricants, cling film, fiber optic compounds, adhesives, rubber gloves, and much more. 

It is used primarily because of its flexible qualities, but it is also solid and resilient as a rubber product. 

Frequently, you will find that butyl rubber is used to make a wide variety of industrial-strength products, such as butyl rubber gloves. Its industrial use speaks to the strength and reliability of the material. In addition, it highlights why it’s trusted to coat roofs across the country. 

Butyl Elastomeric Roof Coating Benefits

Will a butyl elastomeric roof coating be for everyone? Certainly not. There are certain things you will have to take into careful consideration before choosing butyl elastomeric as your roof coating material.

For instance, consider your roof’s size. Butyl elastomeric is comparatively affordable, but it is undoubtedly more expensive than other types of roof coatings. So if your commercial property has a larger roof area, the project could exceed $3,000. 

Butyl coatings are not the most expensive option, but you will still have to be able to fit them comfortably within your budget. If you can, though, here are some of the essential benefits of butyl elastomeric roof coating:

1) Extreme Versatility

One thing that will not prevent your roof from being a good candidate for butyl elastomeric coatings is the substrate. One of the best things about this material is that it can be applied to virtually any substrate, including metal, concrete, built-up roofing, single-ply roofing membranes, and modified bitumen.

2) Excellent Leak Protection

While not exclusive to butyl elastomeric roofing, the single continuous membrane structure provides excellent leak protection for most roofs. In addition, the security includes ponding water prevention which can be detrimental for some roofing systems. 

Ponding water can often cause roof sagging and, eventually, leaks. Butyl rubber is incredibly leak-resistant, even in the case of pooling water. 

3) UV Reflectivity

Butyl elastomeric roof coatings can come in white or light colors that are very effective for reflecting the sun’s UV rays. The more UV rays you reflect off your roof, the lower your cooling costs. Installing a complete butyl elastomeric roof coating on your roof can save you hundreds or thousands of dollars on your annual utility bills. 

4) Thermal Cycling Resistance

As the temperatures fluctuate outside, your roof is subject to a cycle of expanding and contracting. While natural, this thermal fluctuation takes a real toll on most types of roofing material. Years of contraction and expansion could cause cracks in the roofing system. 

The rubber content in butyl elastomeric makes it very flexible. As such, it stands up much better to thermal cycling than other roof coatings. 

5) Ease of Installation

This benefit comes with a caveat. In theory, butyl elastomeric roof coatings should be easy to install. That’s because it is applied as a liquid and sprayed onto the existing substrate of a roof. 

However, contractors should note that the solvent-based material can be challenging to work with unless your spray equipment is clean and maintained well. On the other hand, if you do maintain your spray equipment well, the application should be no problem.

6) Flexibility

The flexibility of the cured butyl elastomeric coating is advantageous for many things. But one of the best things about it is its flexibility makes it ideal for foot traffic. It is not a rigid roofing material that will break under a footfall. 

Suppose your building maintenance often involves service workers on your roof (servicing HVAC systems, repairing lights, electrical issues, skylights, etc.). In that case, you may want to consider butyl elastomeric roof coatings.

7) Multi-Utility

Up to now, we have primarily spoken of butyl elastomeric roofing as a complete roof coating. And while it is used in this way a lot, it’s not the only way it can be used. For example, because it is a spray-on roof coating, it can also be used to repair leaks. 

This type of roof coating can be used as something like a patch material for when you need spot repairs on your roof. In this way, butyl elastomeric is a very affordable way to repair your roof.

8) Longevity

Generally, a butyl elastomeric roof coating can last between 10 and 20 years. However, you should also be aware that how long the roof coating lasts may depend on the application’s thickness at the installation time. 

For example, you can reasonably expect your butyl elastomeric roof coating to last 20 years or more if about 0.03 inches of it was applied to your roof. Of course, maintenance and the quality of installation will also play a hand in the roof coating’s longevity. Still, a thick layer can provide you with long-lasting roof protection.

9) Warranties

Most roofing contractors offer good warranties on their butyl elastomeric roof coatings. That’s because it is a durable and reliable roofing material. Generally, you can expect your roofing contractor to offer a warranty between 10 and 18 years for a new butyl elastomeric roof coating. 

Final Thoughts on Butyl Elastomeric Roof Coatings

As a roofing contractor, you work hard to provide outstanding services to your customers. That’s probably why you are interested in butyl elastomeric roof coating in the first place – it’s a high-performance roofing system that could benefit many of your customers. 

What is Built Up Roofing? (BUR Definition + Installation Process)

What is Built-Up Roofing?

Modern built-up roofing systems are made of layers of asphalt with alternating layers of felt going in between. Built-up roofing systems are also commonly topped with a layer of aggregate such as stone or gravel for a final layer of protection. 

The alternating layers of asphalt (also called bitumen) and felt are applied directly to the roof deck insulation. Built-up roofing provides a continuous membrane over a roof’s entire expanse, making it exceptionally waterproof. As such, it is almost exclusively seen on low slope or flat roofing systems where water drainage would otherwise be an issue. 

Today, built-up roofing is one of the most viable options for modern low slope and flat roofing systems. The following post will discuss built-up roofing systems, including their pros, cons, and standard installation methods. 

Built-Up Roofing Definition

Built-up roofing is more or less what it sounds like: a roofing system that utilizes multiple material layers to protect the roof decking. However, there are even different kinds of built-up roofing. It’s important to understand that built-up roofing systems are a viable option for most low slope and flat roofs. 

BUR Roof Systems History

BUR systems have been around for a very long time. In fact, according to some sources, there is evidence that rudimentary built-up roofing systems have been around since the 1800s. The extensive history is a good thing because, in all that time, the materials, applications, and designs have only gotten more refined. 

Built-up roofing systems have changed over the years. In 2022, there are more options and features than before. For example, modern built-up roofing systems often incorporate a layer of rigid insulation to improve the energy efficiency of the roofing system and the entire building.

Built-up Rooftop

Modern BUR systems typically utilize a rigid insulation layer for increased energy efficiency and reduced energy costs. In addition, modern BUR systems have a wider variety of features since their initial emergence.

Components of A Built Up Roof

The essential elements of built-up roofing have remained the same in recent history. While modern innovations and new materials have been introduced, your basic built-up roofing system will consist of felt layers, asphalt layers, and surfacing material. 

  • Asphalt Layers: The asphalt layers we have already described are similar to the material used to make asphalt shingles. 
  • Felt Layers: The felt layers are usually composed of a fabric reinforced with fiberglass. They can also be infused with other organic materials. The felt layers bond with the asphalt layers through either a cold or hot bonding process. 
  • Surface Layers: The final layer is made up of surfacing material, typically some gravel or fine stones. The job of the surfacing layer is to make the roof safe to walk on and provide a rigid top layer of protection for the felt and asphalt layers underneath. 

What Are the Different Types of Built-Up Roofing?

While additional layers of insulation can be included in the construction of a built-up roofing system, you will generally have a few different types. They include:

Hot Built Up Roofing

The term “hot” refers to how the layers are installed. The asphalt layers are heated, so they liquefy and form a bond with the felt layers. In general, though, hot built-up roofing doesn’t perform as well as cold built-up roofing in extreme weather. The installation is generally more complex and weather-dependent. 

Cold Built Up Roofing

With cold built-up roofing insulation, the asphalt layers are bonded with the felt layers with an adhesive. As a result, cold built-up roofing is more weather-resistant than hot built-up roofing, and there are no toxic fumes to worry about. Cold installation can also be done in virtually any weather, provided it’s not raining or snowing. 

Ballasted Roofing

Ballasted built-up roofing is not installed using heat or any adhesive even. Instead, the layers of asphalt and felt are kept in place with a top layer of heavy stones. The top-layer stones can be up to 2 inches in diameter and provide enough weight to keep all the layers in place. 

Pros and Cons of Built-Up Roofing

Like most roofing materials, BUR systems present benefits and downsides, or more simply put, pros and cons. Check out the advantages and disadvantages of built-up roofing below:

Benefits of Built-Up Roofing (Pros):

  • Lifespan: A built-up roofing system can last as long as 40 years. That’s on the high end, though. A built-up roofing system’s average lifespan is more like 20-30 years.
  • Low Maintenance: Once your built-up roofing system is installed, it will need very little maintenance. 
  • Fire-Resistant: One of the best things about built-up roofing is that the top aggregate layer makes it very resistant to fire. 
  • Energy-Efficiency: Some built-up roofing systems can be outfitted with a reflective top layer that bounces UV rays off your building, keeping your building cooler in hot weather. 
  • Weather Protection: Since there are no breaks in the layers of a built-up roofing system, it provides excellent leak protection. 
  • Impact Resistant: The aggregate top layer of built-up roofing systems is very rugged and will not puncture easily. 

Downsides of Built-Up Roofing (Cons):

  • Lengthy Installation: Because of the multiple layers that need to be applied, built-up roofing installation can take a long time. 
  • Fumes from Hot Installation: If you opt for hot built-up roofing, you may be exposing your building to toxic fumes.
  • Ponding Water: Ponding water can build up on any flat roofing system, including built-up roofing. The roof can begin to sag if nothing is done about the ponding water. Sagging can lead to depression in that roof section, making it more likely that ponding will become an ongoing issue. 
  • Cost: Compared to other kinds of flat and low slope roofing systems, built-up roofing installation can be expensive. 

Fundamental Built-Up Roofing Repairs

Suppose your BUR system fails at some point in its expected lifespan. In that case, there are repair options that may extend its longevity. Check out some primary repair options for your built-up roof system in 2022.

Spray Foam Roof Coating

Spray foam roof coatings minimize tear-offs while helping to maintain a seamless membrane. In addition, SPF coatings include closed-cell insulation while increasing R-Value by nearly 7 per thickness inch. As a bonus, SPF-sprayed roofs become sustainable post-warranty.

Silicone Roof Coating

Smooth built-up roof systems may benefit from a silicone coating. The primary appeal of silicone coatings is its low cost compared to other repair or replacement options. A silicone coating ranges between $2-$4 per square foot, which essentially cuts your expenses by more than half.

However, you shouldn’t apply a silicone coating to a gravel BUR.

Built-Up Roofing Lifespan

A BUR roofing system typically lasts between 20-30 years though it may last up to 40 years with proper maintenance. Like every roofing system, longevity depends on variables like installation quality, climate, UV exposure, and maintenance regularity.

Bult-Up Roofing Challenges in 2022

Built-up roofs are challenging because of cracks, blisters, and ridges that emerge after exposure to the elements. In addition, unresolved gaps can split inside the membrane, a phenomenon known as alligatoring. 

Moisture infiltration can create blisters that become easily viewable on your roof system. Left untreated, these blisters can spread into other parts of the membrane. 

Similarly, thermal expansion can cause ridges and separated insulation. Replacing damaged insulation is critical in this instance.

Protecting Your BUR Membrane System in 2022

Regular inspections are the easiest way to protect your BUR roof membrane in 2022. Once roofers identify a small problem, you should address it ASAP rather than allowing the situation to linger and cause more extensive damage.

In addition, BUR systems should have reapplied UV protective layers every five years to maintain protection from damaging sunlight. However, an inspector should examine the seals and flashing before reapplication to ensure proper fitting. If cracks emerge, you’ll want to reseal them before applying the new UV protection layer. 

Similarly, damaged flashing must be replaced before reapplication.

TPO Vs PVC Roofing: The (Ultimate) 2022 Comparison

TPO vs PVC Roofing (Blog Cover)

The roofing industry has an age-old discussion about TPO vs. PVC roofing. Commercial roofing projects are usually expensive and involved. They are typically larger-scale than residential roofing jobs, and the choices for contractors and property owners differ. 

A commercial building often needs a low slope or flat roof. So you can’t simply slap some shingles and call it a day. Low pitch and flat roofing systems are unique and require different considerations. 

The most popular low slope and flat roofing system materials are TPO (thermoplastic polyolefin) and PVC (polyvinyl chloride). Both of these types of roofing materials are classified as thermoplastic materials. As such, they have some similarities in terms of performance and installation. 

For instance, they are both single-ply roofing membranes, providing good waterproofing as single, continuous membranes with little to no seams. However, there are things you have to know about both materials. In the following post, Roofer’s Guild compares TPO vs. PVC roofing to make the best choice for your property. 

What is TPO Roofing?

TPO roofing membranes are ethylene or polyethylene materials bound to ethylene propylene rubber to create a TPO roofing membrane. 

Manufacturers originally developed TPO as a higher-quality alternative to PVC. However, the line between the two roofing systems has become blurred these days. Many often mistake one for the other as both are thermoplastic roofing materials and offer some of the same advantages. 

What is PVC Roofing?

PVC roofing material is the product of polymerizing vinyl chloride monomers, followed by adding plasticizers to the monomers. The creation forms a durable and flexible roofing membrane that is chemical-resistant. 

You will find PVC roofing systems on many commercial roofs throughout the United States. They are ideal for flat roofing systems where drainage would otherwise be an issue. 

The Qualities of TPO Roofing

So why would anyone choose a TPO roofing system? There are actually lots of reasons. Here are just a few of the most important:

  • Eco-Friendly: Once a TPO roofing system has run the course of its life, it can be recycled. According to recycling authorities, about 11 million tons of roofing material waste are generated in the United States every year. Roofing waste is one of the most problematic forms of landfill waste. TPO roofing materials can be fully recycled, making them friendlier for the environment.
  • Energy Efficient: The outer layer of TPO roofing membranes can be light in color and highly reflective. The reflectivity helps reflect UV rays off your roof so that the building doesn’t heat up so much. In most cases, this will mean less air conditioner usage. Therefore, TPO roofing systems can help increase the energy efficiency of your commercial building.
  • Puncture Protection: TPO roofing membranes are known to be puncture-resistant. Their resistance makes them a suitable choice if your commercial building is in a windy area or has a lot of tree coverage. 

While these are all great benefits of TPO roofing, you should understand that TPO roofing is not as chemical-resistant as PVC roofing. However, chemical resistance may not be an issue if your business has nothing to do with handling or manufacturing chemicals and chemical byproducts. 

However, businesses like restaurants may not want to invest in a TPO roof as they don’t offer as much protection as PVC regarding substances like grease, oil, and smoke. You can also review some of the other common TPO roofing problems before making your final choice.

Roofer Fitting TPO On Roof

TPO roofing offers several benefits but also features a few downsides like its lack of chemical resistance

The Qualities of PVC Roofing

PVC roofing has been a stalwart in the roofing industry for over four decades. It is a prevalent material for commercial roofs, and here are some of the reasons for its popularity:

  • Flexibility: Compared to TPO roofing, PVC roofing membranes are more flexible. The added plasticizers increase the roof system’s flexibility. The flexibility makes it easier to install and more viable for complicated roofing systems with multiple breaks in the roof line. 
  • Chemical Resistance: PVC roofing is also more chemical-resistant than TPO roofing. So it may be a better choice in industrial applications or for any commercial building exposed to harsh chemicals and chemical byproducts. 
  • Weather Resistance: Because PVC roofing membranes are applied as a single, continuous piece, they offer excellent protection against the weather – in particular, water leaks.

Keep in mind that PVC is generally more expensive than TPO. Also, some PVC roofing materials use plasticizers. While plasticizers make the membrane more flexible, they may also make the material less durable.

Plasticizers break down quicker than the rest of the materials. In addition, they may lead to quicker degradation, primarily when used in areas with extreme heat and UV exposure. 

Consider that TPO and PVC roofing have similar lifespans. With TPO, you can expect the roof to last up to 30 years; but a more realistic expectation is more like 23 years. On the other hand, a PVC roof can last as long as 30 years with proper maintenance. 

Aside from PVC roofing, you can also check out a comparison between TPO vs. Modified Bitumen roofing.

Plasticerez makes PVC roofing flexible but may also contribute to its relatively fast degradation when compared to a material like TPO

Other Considerations When Choosing TPO vs. PVC

Understanding the fundamental differences between TPO and PVC roofing is essential, but other considerations may also arise. For example, industry regulations, warranties, and installation quality significantly influence the ultimate performance of your TPO or PVC roofing system.

Industry Regulations

First introduced to the US market in the early 90s, TPO is the newer and less-regulated material. In contrast, the more established PVC material has stricter regulations. Unfortunately, the more lenient regulations may result in inferior quality.


No matter which material you are leaning towards, it’s essential to try to choose a manufacturer that offers the longest-lasting warranty. Keep in mind that a manufacturer warranty will not cover the installation. However, it will protect the material’s longevity for a specific time. 


As with any roofing material, the longevity of your roof depends significantly on its installation. Therefore, only licensed and insured contractors should install TPO and PVC roofing. For best results, you should work with a contractor with considerable experience with single-ply membrane roof installation.

You should always get estimates from multiple roofing contractors and ask each for numerous references. You may also want to opt for a contractor that can give you a comprehensive labor warranty. 

How to Tarp A Flat Roof (w/Waterproof Tips) for 2022

How To Tarp a Flat Roof (Blog Cover)

Learning how to tarp a flat roof is essential for preventing water damage.

After all, protecting your roof from the elements means protecting your entire property. Flat roofing materials are reliable, but they’re not invulnerable. If you want maximum protection for your roof and property, you should consider tarping your roof. 

A tarp will add an extra layer of protection to your flat roofing system. If you live in an area with a lot of rain or snow, tarping could be especially advantageous. Flat roofing materials typically provide adequate protection for your roof but have an inherent weakness: they’re flat. 

Flat roofs can’t drain off water like pitched roofs which is why tarping is a good idea. But how do you tarp a flat roof? It isn’t as simple as laying a big piece of vinyl down on the roof. Instead, there are steps you should follow if you want the tarp to be effective. 

So in the following post, Roofer’s Guild details a guide on how to properly tarp your flat roof.

Step 1: Measuring

The first thing you have to do is procure the tarp. But how much tarp will you need? That depends on the area of your roof. You must take careful measurements to ensure you don’t buy too much or too little tarp for your roof. For this, we recommend using a good old-fashioned tape measure. 

Measure the span of your roof and account for any alcoves, nooks, and crannies. Next, measure the length and width of the entire roof so you know precisely how much tarp you need. 

You can also use Google Earth to measure your roof. Google’s roof measurement is a relatively new feature, but it will give you a general idea of the measurements of your roof. 

Step 2: Cutting the Tarp

Once you have procured the correct amount of tarp, you will need to cut it into more manageable strips once you are up on the roof. Again, you can use a simple pair of scissors or maybe a utility knife to do the cutting. 

You’ll want to cut the tarp into strips about 2 inches longer than the width of your roof. 

Step 3: Laying the Tarp Down

Once your tarp strips are cut up, you will need to lay them down lattice-style over your roof. Again, laying the strips with the shiny side facing down would be best for the utmost protection. 

Step 4: Securing the Strips

With your tarp strips laid down in a lattice pattern, you will need to secure them. We recommend using a staple gun to secure the strips to the upper layer of your flat roofing system. It would help if you started at the corner of the first strip (the one in any far corner of your roof) and then worked your way inward. 

For the best protection against wind, you should staple the opposite side of the strip at a diagonal angle. The angle will create an “X” shape and provide better protection against strong winds.

Step 5: Plastic Sheeting and Insulation

This last step is optional. However, if you want the most protection for your flat roof, we recommend covering the entire tarp layer with thick plastic sheets and securing them with either staples or roofing nails. 

Then, you will need to insulate the roofing system. For this, we recommend a material with an R-value of at least 5. A 5 R-value ensures your roof retains heat and releases it as needed. Spray foam insulation works best with flat roofing systems and is easier to install. 

What Kind of Roof Tarp Should You Choose?

You should be aware that tarp doesn’t come in just one type of material. When people think of tarp, they usually conjure up images of sheets of blue vinyl. But in 2022, there are more options; you should know about each before selecting one for your flat roof. So let’s take a look at the different materials of tarp:

  • Plastic: Plastic tarps are relatively affordable. They come in various colors and thicknesses but generally won’t last as long as other types of tarp. Plastic is an excellent temporary option if you need to cover up your roof during repairs. We don’t recommend it for permanent roof coverage – the material won’t last as long under substantial UV exposure. 
  • Vinyl: Vinyl is a very durable tarp material. You can use it in pretty much any climate. It will also provide minimum insulation for your roof. However, a vinyl tarp will be more expensive than plastic and canvas tarps. Another downside to this type of tarp is that it may not be suitable for large flat roofs. It is not as flexible as a plastic tarp, so you will need to buy more of it to cover your entire roof. 
  • Canvas: Canvas tarps are made from thick layers of cloth. Since they are made of mostly organic material, so they can provide better insulation than plastic and vinyl tarp. Canvas tarps won’t be as expensive as vinyl tarps, but they will also not last as long. Also, you can’t use a canvas tarp in an area with a lot of rain. Canvas tarps aren’t waterproof and will only be a viable option if you’re in a dry climate. 

Things to Remember When Tarping A Roof

If you are wondering how to tarp a flat roof, then there are some things that you have to keep in mind:

  • Tarping isn’t A Permanent Solution: If you choose a vinyl tarp, you can expect it to hold up for a few years. But tarping isn’t a permanent roofing solution. 
  • The Thicker, the Better: You will generally want a thick tarp material to protect your roof better. A thick tarp material will work best if you are covering up some recent repairs or just adding an extra layer of protection to your flat roof.
  • Nails Vs. Staples: Roofing nails work best since they hold up better in strong winds than staples. However, they are not as easy to install. They are also significantly more expensive. If you don’t have legit roofing experience, you may want to stick with a staple gun. But in any case, if you have any doubts about how to lay tarp on your flat roof, you should call on an experienced roofing contractor.

How to Find A Leak in A Metal Roof (w/Causes, Solutions, Etc.)

How To Find a Leak in a Metal Roof (Blog Cover)

Understanding how to find a leak in a metal roof is an important skill. Unfortunately, there is no such thing as an invulnerable roof. Metal is a durable and reliable roofing material that can succumb to rain, snow, and moisture damage. 

It would be wise to have your metal roof checked out annually. You should also keep an eye out yourself for tell-tale signs of roof damage. 

You should first know that it pays to be vigilant. A small leak right now might be easy and affordable to fix, but if you leave it alone too long, it could cost you thousands of dollars down the line. 

While metal roofs are known to last for decades, you still have to keep up with maintenance. So don’t fall into the trap of thinking that your metal roof will never spring a leak. Instead, read on as we tell you how to find a leak in a metal roof so you can prevent a significant roofing catastrophe.

Where Do Metal Leaks Originate?

The first step toward finding a metal roof leak is knowing where to look. Let’s take a moment to review some of the potentially problematic areas of your metal roof:

Knowing where to look can help you identify the origin of your metal roof leaks and swiftly address the problem.

The Valleys

The valleys of your metal roof are where panels meet and seams are created. It is likely to see corrosion or wear in these vulnerable spots, so this is the first place you’ll want to look. Keep an eye out for tears in the paneling, the seams, or if there is any corrosion. 

While the damage may not look significant, it could soon develop into a leak if it’s in vulnerable spots like the valleys of your roof.

Roofing Nails

You will generally deal with aluminum nails if you have a metal roof. However, if you live in a coastal area or the nails are exposed to chemicals, they can be a liability. So you should pay close attention to the nails and screws used to hold down your metal roofing. 

Look for signs of rust and discoloration. You should also keep an eye out for loose screws and nails. It can become a major issue when metal roof screws are leaking. You may be able to seal up the holes to protect the roof from water damage. 

Breaks in the Roof Line

A break in the roof line refers to any protrusion from the shingles or paneling, including chimneys, vents, skylights, HVAC installations, etc. Anything installed on the roof that isn’t actual roofing material is a break.

Check around the base of these protrusions where they meet the actual roof material. Make sure that the flashing is intact and that there is no sign of deterioration. If the flashing has become rusted, broken, or otherwise compromised, it should be replaced as soon as possible.

Any breaks in the roof line due to these protrusions will likely cause a leak. 

The Attic

Your attic plays an essential role in your roofing system. When adequately vented, it prevents the risk of ice dams and moisture damage from inside the structure. However, when improperly ventilated, it could cause moisture damage. So check your attic regularly.

Also, check to ensure that the insulation is in good condition and that none is missing. Look for streaks on the insulation bays and studs. Any discoloration in the wood could be a sign of a leak. If it feels overly humid or stuffy in your attic, you should look into improving ventilation. An attic fan may also be able to help. 

Signs of Metal Roof Leaks

Along with knowing where to look for leaks in your metal roofing system, you should also know the signals that indicate you already have a leak. Some of the most common signs of metal roof leaks include:

Discoloration on the Walls or Ceiling

You can start by checking out your interior spaces. If you see streaky discolorations on your walls, ceiling, or even your floorboards, it could indicate that your roof is leaking. While these may also be signs of a plumbing leak, it would be wise to have your roof checked out to be sure.

Loose Fasteners

If you see that your roof fasteners have been displaced, raised, or become loose, the problem could be water damage. Water damage will cause the underlayment to become warped and deformed, leading to fastener issues.

Roof Sagging

If your metal roof allows water to seep through the decking, it could cause your ceilings to start sagging. Take a look at the ceilings under your attic or roof. You could be dealing with a roof leak if you notice that they look bulging, misshaped, or sagging.

Rust Stains

While most metal roofing panels and shingles can be treated with an anti-corrosion finish or paint, there is only so much these protective layers can do. In addition, if there is a structural leak, you will still likely see rust stains on the roof itself. 

These may look like streaky stains that run down your roof toward the gutters. If you are seeing rust on your metal roof, you must have it checked out by a professional as soon as possible. 

Metal Roofing Leak Tips

If you are ever in doubt, it’s always best to call a professional. Unfortunately, quick fixes rarely prevent severe damage from occurring, even if it delays the inevitable. However, some essential tips you can follow will help shore up your metal roof. 

Use Magic Tape

For instance, if you are dealing with corrosion in the valleys or the flashing of your roof, you may be able to use self-vulcanizing tape (sometimes referred to as self-amalgamating or magic tape) to seal up the damage. 

Of course, this shouldn’t be viewed as a permanent fix, and it will only be a viable option if the corrosion or damage is minimal. So even after applying the tape, you should check your roof. 

Apply Caulk

If it seems that there might be leak potential around the venting of your roof, you may be able to shore up the defenses by applying caulk to the perimeter. However, remember that you want to seal the seams where the vent meets your roof line. 

Use a Drill

If you are dealing with raised nails or roofing screws, you may be able to screw them back into place with a drill. You can also look into replacing the insulation in the attic.

6 Factors to Consider When you Replace an Industrial Roof

Replace Industrial Roof (Blog Cover)

Various factors will influence how and when to replace an industrial roof. No one likes dealing with a roof replacement – least of all industrial property owners and property managers. 

A Roof Inspection in a Large City

Here’s why: Replacing an industrial roof is not the same as replacing a residential or commercial roof. Instead, it takes significantly more planning and consideration. 

An industrial replacement job takes longer and costs more than your average re-roof. After all, your industrial roof should last you for at least 20 years, so you have to make sure you get the most bang for your buck and the longest life from your new industrial roof. 

Facing an industrial re-roof can be very stressful and very challenging. That’s why we wanted to dedicate today’s post to the topic. Whether a property owner or a roofer specializing in industrial roofing, pay close attention as we outline the most important factors to consider when replacing an industrial roof. 

Below, check out these six factors you should consider for industrial roof replacement.

1) Installations on the Roof

Chances are your industrial building is large. It may require special installations like custom ventilation and cooling, or maybe you want to invest in solar panels. It’s important to note that not all roofing materials can accommodate certain roof installations like industrial-strength air conditioning and massive solar panel arrays. 

Think about what kind of installations you will need for your industrial roof. Considering these installations should naturally eliminate some options and make your decision a bit easier for you. 

Even if you suspect which roofing material works best (many assume metal roofs can handle any structural load), it’s always best to consult a professional before starting the project. 

Also, remember that the more special installations you have on your roof, the more foot traffic it will need to accommodate. So from installation to maintenance to replacement, if your roof has a lot of specialty installations, it will surely see frequent foot traffic. 

2) Green Roofing

These days, everyone is looking to save money. So if you are facing an industrial re-roof, consider the price of your utilities. A green roofing solution will help you save money on your utilities and will be better for the environment. 

One of the best green roofing materials for industrial buildings is metal. Metal is one of the most energy-efficient roofing materials because it can reflect many UV rays away from the structure. It’s also a good choice for industrial buildings because it’s durable and comparably lightweight, making it easier to install. 

3) The Roofing Contractor

Choosing a high-end, highly durable industrial roofing material won’t mean anything without proper installation. Therefore, working with a competent roofing contractor is one of the most important considerations. Installation quality will be the single most crucial factor in the longevity of any roof, including industrial roofs. 

You can check review sites like Angi, Google Business Profile, and the Better Business Bureau. In addition, reach out to colleagues if you know anyone who has worked with an industrial roofer that they would recommend. 

Also, you must get more than one quote for the job. We recommend getting at least three quotes. Don’t be afraid to ask questions, either. Remember: they’re vying to win your job. 

Contractor In United States T Shirt Coats Rooftop

Ask each contractor about their experience with industrial roofing, whether they are licensed or bonded, and ask for industrial references specifically. 

4) Industrial Building Codes

Local regulations, codes, and weather patterns may limit your industrial roofing material choices. Your roofing contractors should be able to help you navigate your local building codes. Still, before your project begins, it’s good to know that these codes will play a part in your re-roof. 

Building codes vary from state to state, so it’s a good idea to brush up on your local regulations before your project gets underway. 

5) Maintenance Schedule

The design of your roof (slope and drainage) and the roofing material will ultimately determine how much maintenance it will require. So naturally, you want to go with the most low-maintenance options. But that option may vary depending on where your building is. 

For example, if you are in an area with a lot of rain, you will need a steeper slope roof to drain the water effectively. Likewise, suppose you live in an area that gets extreme heat. In that case, you will need a roofing material that does well in extreme temperatures. 

Thermal expansion and contraction will also contribute to how much maintenance a roof will require throughout its lifespan.

6) Longevity

Of course, you will want to consider the longevity of any roofing material before installing it. You want the most extended life coupled with the least amount of maintenance. With this in mind, some of the most popular industrial roofing materials include standing seam metal and spray foam roofing. 

Standing seam metal roofs can last as long as 50 years. Spray foam roofing has a similar life expectancy. 

In general, standing seam metal roofs require less maintenance and are more durable. They also perform very well in areas that get both cold and hot weather, as the panels won’t expand and contract as much. 

In Conclusion

Industrial roof replacement is a major job and involves more complications than a standard commercial roof replacement. As a result, roofers, industrial property owners, and industrial property managers must consider the factors above when performing an industrial re-roof.  

How Long Does A Metal Roof Last? (Lifespan, Expectancy, etc.)

How Long Does a Metal Roof Last? (Blog Cover)

A metal roof’s lifespan varies by its type. For example, standing seam metal roofs last between 50 and 75 years. In contrast, a screw-down panel metal roof lasts only 20-30 years. Of course, you can’t predict exactly how long any roof will last because dozens of variables influence its longevity.

Metal Roof Life Expectancy by Type

The first thing you should know is that there are different types of metal roofs. Secondly, each type has a different life expectancy because of how they are built and withstand conditions. So let’s take a brief look at each one and their average life expectancy:

Standing Seam Metal Roofs

A standing seam metal roof consists of metal roofing panels joined at an underlying seam. They feature vertical, trapezoidal legs that conceal the seam underneath, which gives this type of roofing its name. The design also offers this type of metal roofing its incredible durability. 

You can expect a standing seam metal roof to last for at least 30 years. Most standing seam metal roofs last for much longer than that, though. Under the right conditions, expecting your standing seam metal roof to last between 50 and 75 years is not outrageous. 

Screw-Down Panel Metal Roofs

Screw-down panel metal roofs are usually made of corrugated steel or aluminum and feature a series of exposed screws. It’s the screws that hold the metal panels to the roof decking. Because the screws are exposed, screw-down panel metal roofs aren’t as durable or reliable. 

Panel metal roofs also don’t perform as well as standing seam roofs because the metal panels aren’t allowed to expand and contract. Generally, you can expect 20-30 years from a screw-down panel metal roof. 

Screw-down panel metal roofs also don’t look as clean, modern, or nice as standing seam metal roofs. So, while installing a standing seam metal roof may cost you a bit more, it’s the better way to go if you can afford it. 

Why Choose A Metal Roof?

You may have thought that metal roofs were just for barns, silos, and commercial buildings. And if this were 1990, you would have been right. But in 2022, metal roofs are a viable option for residential buildings. There are many benefits to metal roofing, including:


Some metal roofing products contain as much as 95% recycled metal. And once a metal roof needs to be replaced, 100% of the materials can be recycled. 

As a result, metal roofing is one of the most environmentally responsible roofing materials you can choose, making it an excellent choice for anyone conscious or concerned about their impact on the environment.


You may want to consider metal roofing if you live in an area pounded by high winds. On average, a metal roof can withstand winds up to 140 mph. However, some types of metal roof systems and materials can withstand winds as fast as 180 mph!


Metal roofing can withstand not only wind; but fire and hail as well. In addition, metal is flame-retardant, so it won’t spread flames in a fire. This can have a beneficial impact on your insurance as well. 

It is estimated that a metal roof in some regions of the country will save you up to 30% on your homeowner’s insurance policy a year. 

Other Factors That Contribute to the Lifespan of A Metal Roof

We touched on it a bit in the previous section, but now it’s time to take a detailed look at what can affect the lifespan of a metal roof:


The installation is the most critical contribution to the lifespan of your metal roof – whether that lifespan is long or short. Standing seam metal roofs especially need to be installed very carefully and meticulously. 

You should always work with a licensed and experienced roofing contractor for standing seam metal roof installation. Furthermore, you should make sure that the contractor you are considering hiring has specific experience with standing seam metal roofs.


Some metal roofs can be coated with a Kynar 500 finish. In layman’s terms, it’s pretty much just paint. But it can significantly increase the lifespan of your metal roof. Usually, Kynar 500 is only used on standing seam metal roofs, yet another reason to choose this roofing over screw-down panel metal roofing. 

Even the application of the finish is essential, though. While applying, the contractor should clean the paneling at the end of each day to prevent rusting.


The ventilation in your attic will significantly affect any roof you have on top of it – including metal roofing. If your attic is improperly ventilated, it can strain the roofing materials much more. As a result, it may expand and contract more than usual, develop ice dams, or be exposed to moisture.

You should take a look in your attic regularly and ensure that the insulation strips are intact, that there are no signs of moisture damage, and check for leaks of any kind. 


The weather will significantly impact how long your metal roof lasts. If you live in an area with mild weather (no high winds, little to no hail, moderate rain, little to no snow, and moderate heat), your metal roof can last well over 50 years. 

On the other hand, if your area experiences extreme weather, you should expect to repair or replace your metal roof after about 30 years or so.


Most experts agree that you should have your roof inspected once a year. Does this apply to standing metal seam roofs too? Yes, it does. There are certain things you can’t see that a professional inspector will notice.

Regular maintenance will ensure that your metal roof (if installed correctly) will go the distance – even if you live in an area that experiences extreme weather. 

Conclusion on Metal Roof Lifespan

Metal roofing can last up to 75 years when installing a standing seam metal roof. Other types of metal roofs, like screw-down panel roofs, age faster and last only 20-30 years. Ultimately, your roof’s longevity will depend on variables like installation, ventilation, climate, and weather.

Commercial Roof Repair Process (Step-by-Step for 2022)

Commercial Roof Repair Process (Blog Cover)

The commercial roof repair process can be intimidating and stressful for business owners. When you know that you need commercial roof repairs, you may think you will need to shutter your doors for some time or deal with very high repair prices. This may not always be the case, however. 

The fact is that many things could be wrong with your commercial roof, from minimal, quick fixes to major repairs. It’s essential to remember that roof repair is much less expensive than a complete commercial reroof. 

So with some due diligence, you can avoid paying thousands of dollars for a completely new roof. But you have to be vigilant. So keep a sharp eye on your roof, and be sure to take action when you see anything amiss. 

Besides, you don’t have to be intimidated by the commercial roof repair process. Roofer’s Guild developed a guide for what you can expect during the commercial roof repair process to show you what we mean. Check out our commercial roofing terms to better understand the content.

Interior Inspection Process

The first thing a roofing contractor will do is inspect the interior of the building, as that is the most important place to check for damage. Why? Because if roof damage has caused compromise to the structural integrity of the interior spaces, it could be a significant safety hazard.

A roofing contractor will generally look for signs of water damage, like discoloration in the walls and mold. They will also identify where there might be any breaks in the roof covering that expose the interior spaces to the elements. 

Most of the interior inspection will be done visually or using simple tools like a flashlight. However, the contractor wants to get up in your attic or upper storage areas below the roof to look for interior damage. 

Metal Roof Interior

In general, the internal inspection process is pretty simple and non-invasive. However, the time that it takes can vary widely depending on the size of your commercial building. 

Exterior Inspection Process

Next, contractors should check out the roofing system from the outside. They will be looking for visual signs of damage like missing shingles, curled shingles, impact damage to single-membrane roofing structures, damaged flashing, old and worn-out caulk, and visible signs of roof leaks and damage to the gutter system. 

As you can imagine, this will entail getting up on the roof and looking closely at the entire roofing system. 

A Roof Inspection in a Large City

As getting up on the roof for an inspection can be dangerous, you should ensure that any roofer you work with is licensed, insured, and bonded. In your state, a roofing contractor may not need to be bonded. 

Here is a handy guide to figuring out the license requirements for roofers in your state. 

Estimation Process

Once your roof has been thoroughly evaluated and if repairs are needed, the roofing contractor will draw up an estimate for the work. Here is what the assessment should include:

  • The cost of materials required to complete the job
  • The cost of the labor for the job
  • Details about the existing condition of the roof
  • A report of the recommended repairs
  • A timeline for the work

Keep in mind that timelines are subject to change depending on things like weather conditions, workforce, and the demands of your business. However, the repairs can begin once you agree on the estimate terms. 

As a consumer, you should compare estimates of at least three different roofing contractors. As a roofing contractor, you should be sure to make your estimate as complete and easy to understand as possible. 

Be open to fielding questions about the estimate, too, as most business owners may not be familiar with industry terms that you include in the forecast. 

Repair Process

The repair process will vary depending on what is wrong with your roof. For example, if your roof’s flashing has been damaged, the contractor will surely replace it with new flashing. 

Generally, areas with worn-out sealant will be re-caulked or tarred to ensure a tight and secure seal. 

Missing or damaged shingles will also be replaced. However, if you know that the job will entail shingle replacement, be sure to ask your contractor if they work with the same types of shingles you currently have on your roof. 

Areas of plywood that have sustained damage will also need to be replaced. If that is the case, your repair process will also include the use of tar-based caulking to shore up the seams. 

Felt sheeting may also be stapled or glued to the roofing system. Caulk is then used on and around the staples to ensure a water-tight seal. 

Contractor Repairs Roof

The repair process becomes more complex if your roof has sustained decking damage. First, reframing may be required to fix any punctures in the roof decking.

Of course, this will also entail the installation of new sheathing and rebuilding the underlayment of the roof. Then, the structure will have to be tested to ensure it’s waterproof and sealed up as tight as possible. 

Final Thoughts on How to Fix a Commercial Roof

A wide range of problems can emerge with commercial roofs, and the repairs will vary based on what exactly occurs with your roofing system. However, a proper inspection, estimate, and repair process can minimize your costs, maintain your roof’s performance, and maximize its longevity. As a result, fixing a commercial roof can be less expensive and time-consuming than some people think in 2022.

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